The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. FORTUN Scrubs Toe Sexy Women's high Heels Platform Ultra high Heels Prom DressThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Women Espadrille Sandals Suede Peep Toe Wedge Platform Sandals Ankle Strap Buckle Sandals Casual Summer Beach shoes for Women & GirlsOld street Women Flats Sandals Zipper Sandals Woman Fashion shoes Female Holidays shoes LizForm Peep Toe Floral Low Heels Embellished Sandals Sparkle Two Strap Slid SandalsQiyun New Flat Heel Increased Faux Suede Lace-Up Ankle Boots Women Casual shoes shoes Bottesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Kongsta Woman Microfiber Leather Martin Boots Black Fashion Punk Booties New Winter Ladies Winter Boots Womenand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. I Need-You shoes Women High Heel Polka Dot 2019 Summer Fashion New Mules shoes Ladies Pointed Toe Slip On Half Slippers Large SizeYVWTUC Ladies Athletic Cloth Sandals Flexible Non-Slip Breathable shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Losver Fashionable Women's Mandayss Ballet FlatWeenFashion Women's Solid Pu Kitten-Heels Closed-Toe Buckle Sandals, CA18LB05191Cambridge Select Women's Round Toe Twist Knot Slip-On Flat LoaferCambridge Select Women's Closed Pointed Toe D'Orsay Slip-On Ballet Flat I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. WeenFashion Women's PU Closed-Toe Low-Heels Solid Court shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. ZHZNVX Women's PU Summer Sandals Chunky Heel Open Toe White Black), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, ASO-SLING Women Classic Canvas Flat Sneakers Casual Lace up Hidden Heel Platform shoesand ASO-SLING Women's Wedge Sneakers Breathable Mesh Slip on Walking shoes Comfortable Lightweight Height Increasing Loafers). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Efbj Yin Yang Swan Unisex Fashion High Top Canvas Sneaker for Men and WomenCambridge Select Women's Almond Toe Glitter Crystal Rhinestone Ballet Flatduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Jjyee Water shoes for Women and Men Barefoot Quick Dry Aqua Socks Slip on for Beach Swim Pool Surf Yoga(Surfing,XL 42 43)Leather Women Gladiator Sandals Lady Summer Female Flat Sandals Cross Tied shoes shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Drew Toby Women Pumps Solid color Simple Pointed Toe Shallow Fashion Elegant High HeelsT-JULY Summer Women's shoes Muffin Thick-Soled Sandals Fashion Toe Slippers Rhinestone Crystal Wedge Flip FlopsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?ASO-SLING Women's Platform Wedges Sneakers Comfortable Lightweight Athletic Running Tennis shoes for Gym Fitness WalkingOwen Moll Women Pumps, Fashion Solid Sequined Cloth Shallow Party Pointed Toe Sandal shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Sperry Womens Crest Creeper CVO SneakerHANGGE& Thick Heel Ladies Pumps Patent Leather Pointed Toe colorful Square Heels Party Hoxekle Woman Wedge Low Heel Snow Boots Round Toe Slip On Ladies Faux Fur Tassel Winter Warm Antislip Mid Calf BootsWomen's Comfortable Round Toe Martin Boots Side Zipper Chelsea Ankle Boots Flats Soft Short BootiesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: BalaMasa Womens Solid Travel Platform Urethane Boots ABL10720J. shoes Povey Womens shoes UK6 EU39 US8 Navyfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Matisse Womens Grove Ankle BootieSoda ENCINA Women's Buckle Strap Side Zip Elastic Knee High Riding Boots There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placePUMA Womens Smash V2 SneakerHUANGDAISY shoes Funny Pugs Background Slip-on Canvas Loafer for Women.1TO9 Womens Spikes Stilettos Platform Peep Toes Low-Cut Uppers Suede Pumps shoes MMS03177AN Womens Chunky Heels Pointed-Toe Urethane Boots DKU02341 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, HUANGDAISY shoes World Map Slip-on Canvas Loafer for WomenNine West Womens Bedeliah Ankle Bootietherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (London Fog Womens Hillary Zipper and Buckle Knee High Riding Wide Calf Boot).Geox Women's D New LISE NP ABX A Ankle BootsReinhar Women Genuine Leather Quality High Heel Sandals Sexy Fashion Lady Heels shoes However,ZSXWIN Men Suede Chelsea Ankle Chunky Low Heel Martin BootsBella Vita Women's Liza Platform I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Exing Womens's shoes New Rounded Toe Linen shoes Cotton Linen National Wind Ladies shoes Handmade Flat Heel Low Help shoes

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