The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. GLSHI Men Oxford Dress shoes England Handmade Business Pointed Novelty shoes Low Heel Wedding shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Stonefly Casual shoes for Men, Colour Brown, Brand, Model Casual shoes for Men Season III 2 BIS NUB BrownNew Balance Sport Men Sneakers Fresh Foam 1080v8 bluee 41.5 Florsheim Mens Riptide Moc Slip On Riptide Moc Slip onSkechers Men's Relaxed Fit-Superior-Milford Loafer, Light Brown, 16 Extra Wide USgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Blackhawk Men's Ultralight Leather Tactical Bootand molecular biological techniques.

    We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Skechers Men's Relaxed Fit Elected-Drigo Loafer, Taupe Canvas, 11.5 3E-Extra WideAdidas Boys’ Climacool 02 17 Pk Fitness shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

    The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

    A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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    I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Leather Pointed Breathable Sets of Feet Low shoes Men's Business Loafers Oxfords Black Dress shoesBlack Premium by EMP Road Man Boot BlackLe Coq Sportif 181017 Sneakers Men Sudan Brown 41New Balance Men's MU950V2 Umpire Mid shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

    My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Five Ten Men's Anasazi VCS Rock Climbing shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Dsx Men's Hiking shoes, Non-Slip Sneakers, Hiking Boots, Low-Cut Leather, Waterproof, Breathable, Lightweight shoes, Hiking, Climbing, Outdoor Climbing, bluee, 44EU), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Lacoste Men's Explorateur Sport 317 2 Bass Trainersand Salewa MS HIKE TRAINER MID GTX, Men’s High Rise Hiking Boots). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

    1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

    Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Adidas Mens Gt Wensley SpzlID Men's Casual Genuine Leather Lace Up Fashion Sneakers with Non Skid TPR Soleduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

    Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

    Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Nautica Men's Townsend Casual Lace-Up shoes,Classic Low Top Loafer, Fashion Sneaker-White Red-9Nike Unisex Adults’ Vapor 12 Pro NJR Tf Fitness shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

    Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

    2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? XHD-Men's shoes Men's Classic Fashion Ankle Boots Casual Simple Classic Low-top Outdoor Outsole BootsHhgold Winter men's boots warm pointed fashion zipper motorcycle shoes (color 43, Size Grey)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Men's Leather Casual shoes, Men'sspring Fall Up Formal Driving shoes,Office & Career Walking shoesFred Perry Kingston Leather White Burgundy.

    Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

    Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

    Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

    Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Men's Leather shoes Moccasins Loafers Oxford Formal Smart Dress Wedding Casual Slip On Black Office Business Work Evening PartyAdidas Originals Men's Swift Running shoes Nike Men's's Free Rn Distance Running shoesWinter Non-Slip Warm Tooling Safety BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

    3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

    Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

    Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

    and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

    Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

    Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Men's High Top Snow Boots Casual Leather Comfy Waterproof shoes Warm Fur Lined Non Slip Hiking Waterproof Footwear Size:38-44Men's shoes Business Dress shoes Youth Leather Men Wedding shoes Thickeningfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

    Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

    So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Caterpillar CAT P720779 Parker Mens Steel Toe Safety BootsSkechers Men's RELVEN Fashion Boot, Chocolate, 10.5 Medium US There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeAlpinestars Men's Sektor Road Riding shoes (10.5, Black Red)Oudan High tide male winter boots warm waterproof non-slip end (color 39, Size Black).Vans VN0A3WM66BT1 COMFYCUSH ZUSHI shoes Without Laces MenReebok Men's Royal Ec Ride 2 Walking shoes, Black Black, 10 M US At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, OluKai Halu'a Mens Flip FlopsVitiello Dance shoes Men's Classic standard Dance shoes Black blacktherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Clarks Men's Votta Edge Casual Sneakers Black 9W).DANDANJIE Men's shoes Fashion Casual Oxfords Studs Unique Novelty shoesDr. Martens Industrial Men's Surge Safety Boots However,Nike Men's Air Max Motion 2 Running shoesRockport Men's Cullen Penny Loafer I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Nike Unisex Adults’ Superfly 6 Academy Ic Low-Top Sneakers

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