The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Western Work Mens Camouflage Leather Pointed Toe Mid-Calf Western BootsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Florsheim Men's Belfast Perf Toe OxfordLacoste Men's Lerond 119 737cma00457a2 Trainers Bloch Unisex Adults' Troupe Dance shoesPuma Mens Suede 90681 shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, FHCGMX Winter With Men Boots Warm Snow Boots Men Winter Sneakers Boots Work shoes Men Footwear Rubber Ankle shoes 39-46and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Skechers for Work Men's Delleker Lakehead Work BootJosef Seibel Men's Firenze 01 Sling Back SandalsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,TXHLKD Genuine Leather Men Sandals Classic Roman Summer Men shoes Outdoor Beach Flip Flops Water Trekking SandalsLacoste Men's Evara 318 2 SneakerNike Strike Shark Mens Football CleatColumbia Men 1594732 Newton RidgeTM Plus Ii Waterproof Wide I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Giro Terradura Cycling shoes - Women's), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Iron Age Men's Hauler IA0194 Work Boot), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Saucony Men's 25333-2 Fitness shoesand Nike Men's Dualtone Racer Competition Running shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Kempa Unisex Adults' Attack One Handball shoesVasque Men's Constant Velocity Ii Trail Running shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Teva Men's Terra-Float Universal SandalJIALUN-shoes Men's Fashion Ankle Work Boot Nonchalant Vintage Napped Outsole Lace Up Winter Faux Fleece Inside High Top BootLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? S.Oliver 13637-22 Men Trainers,Men′s Low shoes,Sports shoes,lace-up shoesNike Boys Air More Uptempo High Top Sneakers Basketball shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?ECCO Men's Irondale Low-Top SneakersFrye Mens 85229 Allen Venetian.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Adidas Men's Terrex Climacool Voyager Low Rise Hiking shoesKenneth Cole New York Men's's Kam Stripes Sneaker Skechers Men's Go Train Vortex 2 Multisport Outdoor shoesNike Men's Free Tr 8 Trail Running shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Lemaitre Men's Safety shoes DRAGSTER S1Minnetonka Men's Original Cowhide Driving Moccasinfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Geox U Mattias B Amphibiox, Men's Chelsea BootsSalamander Men’s Vasco-aw Biker Boots There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placePalladium Men's Axeon Low TrainersLloyd Vares, Men’s Ankle Boots.Nike Men's Pantheos Fitness shoesINMONARCH Mens bluee Jute Wedding shoes Designer MJ013914 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Nike Men’s Mercurial Victory Vi Df Fg Football Training shoesDiadora B.Elite, Unisex Adults’ Flatform Pumpstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Puma - Kids Pacer Next Cage Metallic shoes).Adidas Zx Flux, Men’s TrainersDEWALT Nitrogen Mens S3 Dealer Pull On Ankle Steel Toe Boots However,INMONARCH Mens Beige Wedding shoes Multi Design MJ015971INMONARCH Mens Salmon Kheenkhap Indian Wedding shoes MJ18308 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Mens loafers Flats Men's Casual Simple Low Top Slip On Pure color Flexible Boat Moccasins Fashion Driving Loafers (color Reddish brown, Size 9.5 UK)

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