The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Skechers Women's Kanz Standard Mary JaneThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,CBDGD High Heel Quality Material Women's Simple Fashion Temperament Work shoes High Heels Sandals High Heels 8.5CM High Heels (color Black, Size EU39 UK6 CN39)BEST WISH-slipper Women Slippers Pearl Flowers Straw Wedges Platform Women Sandals and Slippers GIY Women's Rhinestone Latin Salsa Tango Heel Dance Sandals Open Toe Ballroom Morden Dancing shoesGIY Womens Hidden Heel Platform Tennis Sneakers - Round Toe High Top Increased Height Wedge Bootie shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Fanxu Women's High Heel Platform Flip-Flops Sandals Fashion Slipper Summer Thong (5 colors shoes Size 3540)and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. SISI mbili Women's Sandals flip Flops Kenya Original Snake Snake bluee Unique Handmade PiecesLongbao Classic shoes Women s Genuine Leather Square Heel Autumn Office s Retro Women shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,MKJYDM High Heel Quality Material Women's Simple Fashion Temperament Work shoes High Heels Sandals High Heels 8.5CM Women's high Heels (color Pink, Size EU36 UK3.5 CN35)Sexy Women Thin high Heels Patent Women Pumps Party shoes,Black Matte 12cm,5Liu guifang New Summer Style Women high Heels Boots Sexy Over The Knee high Boots Ladies Party Club Dancing shoes Big SizeGIY Women's Sparkly Metallic Ankle Boots Lace Up Zip Round Toe Low Heel Booties Chelsea Martin Short Boots I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Sexy Women Thin high Heels Patent Women Pumps Party shoes,Nude 8cm,9), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. HYZSX Rubber Rain Boots, Fashion Outdoor Climbing Water shoes Car Wash Fishing shoes in The Tube), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Women's Flat Sandals Gladiator Summer shoes Flip Flops Ankle Strap Zipper at Back Casual shoes for Walking Vacationand YuJi Women Sandals Wedges Heels Party shoes Platform High Heels Summer shoes Peep Toe Buckle,Red,5). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, GIY Women's Platform Slide Sandals High Heel Wedge Sandals Ladies Fashion Summer Beach SlipperCHENSIR9 Women Leather Bootie Retro Ankle Bootsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Soulength Women's Leather Closeed Toe Mid Heels Non-Slip SandalsFanxu Women's Flip Flops,Summer Flat Beach Sandals Comfortable Non-Slip Slippers(3 colors shoes Size 3542) (color gold, Size 5.5 US)Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? YuJi Sandals Women Gladiator shoes Platform Thick Heel shoes Zipper Super High Heel Sandals,Black,5JOYBI Women Casual Platform Walking shoes Mesh Comfortable Slip On Lace-Up Breathable Girl Wedges SneakersAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Gladiator Sandals Women Brand Design Women Sandals high Heel Sandals women Fashion Sandale,Beige,5PFMY.DG Women's Summer Sandals, Comfortable Flat Heel Shallow Mouth Package Buckle Open Toe.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Women Ladies Low Mid Heel shoes \ Lace Rhinestone Fischmund Hohl (color gold, Size 36)Shiney Women's Booties Ladies Comfort Chunky Heel Simple Solid color Zipper Ankle Boots Large Size Handmade GIY Women's Elastic Corss Ballet Flats Loafers Classic Round Toe Comfort Slip On Casual Dress shoesGIY Women's Platform Low Heel Sandals Close Toe Comfort Buckle Strap Camouflage Summer Dress Sandals shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: AIWEIYi Women Pumps Round Toe Square High Heels Platform Dress shoes BlackAIWEIYi Womens Lolita Double Buckles Pointed Toe Chunky Low Heel Mary Janes shoes Blackfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.GIY Women's Hiking Athletic Sport shoes Outdoor Breathable Lightweight Quick-Drying Walking Running shoesFresh Paint Bling Accented Crossbody Sling Black There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeDuo 2017 New Hand-Made Original National Snow Boots Thick Thick Leather Snow BootsSan hojas Sandals Summer Style Black Wedge Heel Platform.AIWEIYi Women Pointed Toe Pumps Sweet Bow Square Med Heel Platform Dress shoes BlackAIWEIYi Womens Faux Suede Pointed Toe Tassel Block Heels Ankle Booties Black At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Tidewater Sandals Women's Freeport Sails Thong Sandal Turquoise Size 8 MLin-House Women shoes Thin High Heel Stilettos Pointed Toe Patent Leather shoes,H161218,12therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (LZWSMGS Women's Leather Open Toe Sandals High Heels Fashion High Heels Novelty shoes Hollow Slippers Large Size 34-43 Ladies Sandals (color Silver, Size 5.5 US)).Lofirsa Womens Loslia Pointed-Toe Size 4-15US 11.5CM High-Heel Slingback Buckle Big Size Party Dress Sandals shoesWomen High Heels Sandals White Lace Pearl Open Toe Platform Wedding shoes Bridal shoes Party Pumps,WhiteB,8MUS However,AIWEIYi Womens Lace up Combat Military Cowboy Over the Knee Boots Rubber Sole Riding Boots BlackAIWEIYi Womens Round Toe Chunky Heels Ankle High Boots Lace up Platform Booties Casual Dress shoes Black I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Sexy Thin High Heel Pointed Toe Women shoes Ladies Sandals,

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