The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. BC Footwear Womens Ring Toss Flat SandalThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Senza Fretta Summer Women Bohemia Gladiator Sandals Strap Flat shoesCJC High-Heeled Sandals Open Toe High Heels Thin High Heels Fashion Sandals Sexy Elegant (Size EU36 UK4) GUESS Womens Vianne2 Closed Toe Over Knee Fashion BootsMarc Fisher Women's Weity Ankle Bootsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Nina Women's Rivka YS D'Orsay Pumpand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Wedopus MW447 Women Peep Toe Platform High Heel Beaded Satin Wedding Bridal Dress shoesLegend New Women's Studded T-Strap Heel PumpWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Women High Heels Peep-Toe Zipper Fashion Simple Sandals 11CMSeychelles Womens Jaunt Espadrille Wedge SandalCity Classified Women's Open Toe Ankle Strap Chunky Block Heel MVE shoesCJC High-Heeled Sandals Baotou High Heels Thin High Heels Fashion Sexy Elegant Sandals Shallow Mouth (color Apricot, Size EU35 UK3) I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Ellie shoes Womens 709-cosmo Heeled Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Women's Sandals Fashion Open Toe Lace-up Zipper Belt Buckle Fine Heel High Heel Women's shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, XUERUI Ms High Heels Stilettos Get Together Sexy Beautiful Young 8cm Heel (color Black, Size EU37 UK4.5-5 CN37)and PUMA Womens RS-150 Nylon WN's Sneakers). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Drew Toby Women Snow Boots Winter Short Tube Warm Non-Slip Cotton shoesPuma - Basket Platform Patent - color Black - Size USduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Women Flat Sandals Tassel Lace Up Sweet Summer Ladies Dress shoes Floral Straps Party FootwearFuntasma by Pleaser Women's PRETTY-50 Mary Jane Black Patent Pump 10 B(M) USLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? KEREE Women's Sparkle Rhinestone High Heeled Ankle Boots Pointy Toe Zipper Comfort Winter Dress Short BootieGenepeg Womens Sandals Peep Toe Thin Heel High Summer Black White Cover Heel shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Rocket Dog Womens Tour Graham Pu Ankle BootieGhapwe Women's Strap Snake Pattern Square Toe Medium Block Heels Side Zipper Ankle Boots Black 8 M US.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).OLIVIA K Women's Ankle Strap Block Low Heel PumpsNative Womens Miller Block Slip-on Sneaker Fashion Sneaker Women Breathable Waterproof Wedges Flat Sneakers Ladies Pu Leather Casual shoesCambridge Select Women's Side V Cutout Stretch Stacked High Heel Shootie Ankle BootieThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: ERSER Summer Orient Beach Lightweight Running shoes Women WideERSER Fisherman Skull Logo Womens Lightweight Running shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Fay Waters Women's Patent Leather Pointed Toe Ankle shoes Low Heel Zipper Dress OxfordsWallhewb Ladies Mesh Breathable Wedges Heels shoes Height Increasing White Sneakers Women Platform Casual shoes Joker Leg Length Highten Increasing Elegant Black 5 M US Casual shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeReinhar Women colorful Stones Wedding shoes Flowers Pattern Satin Dress High HeelsQZUnique Women Roman Stack Sandals Open Toe Chunky Heel Sandals.AmoonyFashion Women's Round-Toe Closed-Toe Low-Heels Boot with Slipping Sole and Laceshoes Republic Open Toe High Heel Sandal w Rhinestones and Thin Ankle Strap Lax At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Kmeioo Pumps for Women,Puff Pompom High Heels Pointed Toe Slingback Pumps Stiletto Heel Sandals Evening Party Wedding shoesWomen's Chunky Heels shoes Bohemia Splicing Pattern Leather Women shoes Square Toe Buckle Pumpstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Women's Sperry, Heron shoes Rain shoes).Happy Feet - DreamWorks How To Train Your Dragon - Toothless Slippers - XX-LargeSuperb Zone Women Short Boots Low Heel Square Retro Boots Women 2018 shoes Woman However,Henraly High-Heeled shoes bluee Jeans Women Lace Up High Ankle Boots shoes Rivets Cool Lady Casual shoes Denims Lace Boots shoesWANGZHAO Single Shoulder Bag, Skew Spanning Bag, Simple Bag I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.T-JULY Women Canvas shoes Lace up High Heel Platform shoes Woman Anti Slip Thick Sole Fabric Casual Leisure shoes

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