The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Uter ewjrt Beautiful Women Basketball-Letter-Bredher-2.0- Funny Athletic Running shoes Canvas Climbing SneakerThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Uter ewjrt Women's The-Spirit-of-John-Lennon- Soft Athletic Running shoes Canvas Walking SneakerUter ewjrt Women's John-Lennon -Imagine-The-Definitive-Film-Portrait Athletic Running shoes Canvas Jogger Sneaker WeiPoot Women's Round Closed Toe Low-top Kitten-Heels Solid PU BootsNot Rated Women's Groove Thang Ankle Bootiegenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Uter ewjrt Woman How-Do-You-Sleep-John-Lennon- Non-Slip Athletic Running shoes Canvas Climbing Sneakerand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. U-MAC Womens Wedge Sneakers Lace-Up Platform Lightweight Comfort Spirit Athletic Sports Jogging Running Walking shoesMamamoo Platform Sandals Women Buckle Summer Sexy High Heel Party shoes Sandalie Ladies SandalsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Ladies Flat Sandals Girls Summer Party shoes High Heels Satin Sandals Women Peep Toe Belt Platform HeelsXIAOQISam Carle Women Boots, Winter Fashion PU Plus Velvet Lace Up Round Toe Mid-Calf BootsXUERUI Sexy 12cm Super High-Heeled shoes with Round Ankle Strap Waterproof Red Wedding shoes (Size EU37 UK4.5-5 CN37)Cambridge Select Women's Classic Round Toe Slip-On Low Wedge I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. BalaMasa Womens Chunky Heels Zipper Bead Imitated Suede Boots ABL11248), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. BalaMasa Womens Spikes Stilettos Pointed-Toe Urethane Boots ABL11056), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, BalaMasa Ladies Platform Buckle Pull-On Imitated Leather Bootsand BalaMasa Womens Platform Zipper Mule Imitated Suede Boots). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Sandals for Ladies Summer Ankle Strap Open Toe Buckle Girls Chunky High Heel Sandal shoesReebok Womens Cl Nylon Mesh M Walking shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). WeiPoot Women's High-Heels Soft Material Low-top Solid Chains BootsMageed Women Sandals Summer shoes Fashion Beach Sandals Women Leather Casual shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? AmoonyFashion Women's Zipper Round Closed Toe High Heels Pu Low Top BootsAmoonyFashion Women's Open Toe Kitten Heels Soft Material Assorted color Buckle SandalsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?XUERUI Red High Heels Spring Round Head Wedding shoes Women's shoes Fine with Waterproof Platform High Heels (Size EU38 UK5.5 CN38)Dr. Scholl's shoes Womens Shake Out Sneaker.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).AllhqFashion Women's Solid Imitated Suede High-Heels Pull-on Round Closed Toe BootsTeva Women's Original Universal Leather Sandal Btrada Women's Winter Fluffy Snow Boots Fur Lined Lace-up Waterproof Anti-Slip Ankle Martin BootiesAmoonyFashion Womens Round Closed Toe Kitten Heels Imitated Lamb Wool PU Solid Boots with Buckle, White, 7.5 B(M) USThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Abby Womens Wedding Party Show Work Rhinestone Block Heel Micro-Fiber SandalsWeenFashion Women's Solid Low-Heels Round Closed Toe Imitated Suede Pull-on Bootsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Palladium PLDM Ecuador Canvas Old pinkSkechers Womens Rumblers - Frilly - Wedge Heeled Dressy Casual Double Buckle Loafer Pump There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeSkechers Women's Parallel-Cookie Cutter-Peep Toe Qtr Cut Wedge SandalChelsea Crew Matrix Women US 6 Brown Oxford.WeenFashion Women's Artificial Cow Leather Low Top Solid Zipper Kitten Heels BootsVery Volatile Womens Bumble Heeled Sandal At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Kensie Womens Edee Heeled SandalSkechers Womens Commute Time - Ocean Pine - Quarter Cut Out Open Back Muletherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (ASO-SLING Wedges Sneakers for Women Platform High Heel Low-top Breathable Tennis Air Casual shoes).ASO-SLING Women Hidden Heels Wedges Sneakers Flats Platform Leather Casual Lace up shoes for TravelMascotte Milan-06 Women's Wedges Platform Boots However,Gracosy Women Sport Sandals, Leather Sandals Summer Outdoor Sport Athletic Hook Loop Ankle Strap Slippers Wide Large SizeIpdterty Wear-Resistant Camping Sneaker Cute Crab Pattern Pretty Women Novelty Track Running shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.AmoonyFashion Women's Pointed-toe Closed-toe High-heels Boots with Thick Heels

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